Chapter 1

Overview
This chapter covers the first settlement of the Western Hemisphere by immigrants from Asia. Over the centuries these immigrants developed a variety of technologies, and these communities adapted to their physical environments. Europeans coming to the Americas would find not an empty land but instead a populated continent of many villages. Native Americans had a great deal of diversity in culture, community organization, language, and technology. European colonists would profit from these technologies and regional adaptations.

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

Illustrate how Cahokia is representative of the definition of the word “community.” (See the Preface of the textbook for the author’s definition.)

List the scientific, archaeological, and oral tradition evidence that supports the migration hypothesis and outline the basic details of the hypothesis.

Describe the first American technology, the Clovis tradition, and indicate how it affected the development of the community.

List the regional geographic areas of North America and illustrate how each one affected the development of the hunting, desert, and forest cultures.

Describe the effect of farming on the development of North American Indian cultures.

Describe what Europeans would find in North America in terms of the chapter title, “A Continent of Villages,” and explain how this would affect European colonization.

Compare and summarize, from reading the entire chapter, various North American Indian attitudes in regard to community.

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